Thread: The Window Effect - Immersive Viewing

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  1. #1 The Window Effect - Immersive Viewing 
    Moderator Phil Holland's Avatar
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    Apr 2007
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    Good evening all,

    One question I've been asked constantly over the years is exactly where we see the advantage of 2K, 4K, and 8K. At NAB 2015 I was probably asked about 8K and my thoughts on where the industry is going with all of this two dozen times. So in between shoots I thought I'd jot some of my thoughts down with a few hard numbers that should help explain not just my POV, but also some of the reasons the industry is migrating towards 4K and 8K as well as some of the future technology on the horizon.

    I've done this in 4 images. Hopefully this is concise enough to show to Clients, Studios, Directors, and Producers. I also tossed in the relevant image circles of Dragon and Film Formats for handy reference.

    An Introduction

    DCI, UHD, and Print Resolutions

    Cinema, Broadcast, and Devices

    Image Circle / Lens Coverage

    I've also created a downloadable PDF version of the above in glorious printable 300 DPI.
    Downloadable Higher Resolution PDF

    With RED Weapon 6K Dragon just a couple months away from being officially released and Weapon 8K Dragon shortly thereafter I thought this was a good time to write up a few useful things.

    Hope it's useful for you all.
    Last edited by Phil Holland; 05-19-2015 at 01:26 AM.
    Phil Holland - Cinematographer - Los Angeles
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  2. #2  
    Senior Member luigivaltulini's Avatar
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    Oct 2009
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    Phil, THANK YOU, you're magnificent ;)

    I have to make a poster of this :)
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  3. #3  
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    Hey Phil,

    Thanks for the great overview. As always, a great resource for all of us. Oh, HD looks so very small indeed...

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  4. #4  
    Senior Member PatrickFaith's Avatar
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    Nov 2011
    Thanks much Phil. I really like how you brought in DPI, just yesterday i was copying something and picked 600 dpi since the text looked better to me(like it was originally typed). In my brain somewhere I think 600 dpi is close to original and doesn't tire my eyes, and now i have a chart that helps me correlate that to weapon resolutions. If anything the "as good as real" concept should be approached by 8k on narrow field of views (i.e. current cinema screens). Another thing I noticed on the charts is the "old" concept is people are fixed in locations, but I've noticed when i'm working with 6k+ screens that people can start moving around and still have a good experience(i.e. i would change the THX SA values i think for 8k).
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  5. #5  
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    Useful Graphics. Thanks much
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  6. #6  
    Senior Member Daniel Murphy's Avatar
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    This is amazing! So helpful.

    The effort it takes to produced this guide is beyond 'Call of Duty' but greatly appreciated.
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  7. #7  
    Awesome stuff as always, Phil!

    Here's my TL;DR summary:

    IVD = Ideal Viewing Distance (sweet spot for binocular vision comfort)
    HIA = Human Ideal Acuity Distance (how close you have to be to see the pixels)
    SA = Shortest Allowed Viewing Distance (closer that this and the image is wider than your binocular vision allows)

    Of course SA < IVD, and in a perfect world, SA would be slightly less than HIA (meaning that sitting too close you can still see the whole screen, but perhaps over-resolve the pixels) and IVD would be > HIA (meaning that not only can you see the whole screen in a relaxed way, but you cannot resolve pixels, just the "window" into the scene).

    DCI 8K Projection: IVD 3.2x > HIA and SA 70% > HIA (which means 8K is overkill for full-frame experiences).
    DCI 4K Projection: IVD 75% > HIA, but SA 15% < HIA (4K nicely matched to practical human vision)
    DCI 2K Projection: IVD 15% < HIA, and SA 2.4x < HIA (2K not satisfactory for pixel-peepers)

    UHD 8K Devices: IVD 3x > HIA and SA 60% > HIA (which means 8K is overkill for full-frame experiences)
    UHD 4K Devices: IVD 50% > HIA and SA 20% < HIA (n.b. typo in Phil's chart -- 0.8 should be 0.4 for 640 ppi SA)
    HD 1080p Devices: IVD 25% < HIA and SA 2.6x < HIA (2K not satisfactory for pixel-peepers)

    Note also that in the DCI 2K / HD 1080p cases, LR (Longest Recommended) is closer to the screen(s) than HIA can resolve, meaning that to have a pixel-free experience, one must sit so far away from the screen that the "window effect" (filling the eyes with the screen) becomes compromised.

    So, for the best full-screen experience, 4K is a winner. 8K 4:2:2 gives you 2x the screen real-estate without any practical visual acuity loss (assuming people want to see the whole screen, not just a fraction of it).

    That's what I got out of Phil's chart.
    Last edited by Michael Tiemann; 05-19-2015 at 03:45 AM. Reason: Tightened up text
    Michael Tiemann, Chapel Hill NC

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  8. #8  
    Phil you are the best... You just keep giving and giving......
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  9. #9  
    Very cool...Thank You!
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  10. #10  
    Senior Member Akin A's Avatar
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    Thanks! Very useful for my own knowledge, but as you said, it will come in handy for explaining to others.
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